Luke 19:41 And when he was come near, he beheld the city, and wept over it, 42 Saying, If thou hadst known, even thou, at least in this thy day, the things which belong unto thy peace! but now they are hid from thine eyes. 43 For the days shall come upon thee, that thine enemies shall cast a trench about thee, and compass thee round, and keep thee in on every side, 44 And shall lay thee even with the ground, and thy children within thee; and they shall not leave in thee one stone upon another; because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.
We need to consider the history of Israel the century before Yeshua made this statement to understand how the Temple looked in the eyes of YHWH by the time of his ministry. Then we will investigate “the time of thy visitation” as a reference to Yom Kippur.
The Temple of Ezra, which Herod expanded and renovated, stood as the glue holding together what remained of the Judean people. Though many Israelites chose never to return from Babylon during the time of Ezra and Nehemiah, the rebuilt Temple still beckoned to all Hebrew males to make three pilgrimages a year: Passover, Pentecost, and Tabernacles.
During the time of the Maccabees, a Greek king known as Antiochus IV Epiphanes , desecrated the Temple by stopping the temple services and ordering the worship of Zeus as head of all gods.. Greek rulers and many Hellenized Jews wanted Israelites to adopt the ways of polytheism and of Greek philosophy.
The writer of the Book of Daniel shows that the last actual seed-of-Aaron high priest was Yason of the Oniad family. Under the rule of Antiochus IV Epiphanes he attempted to pay a bribe to have himself confirmed by the Greek king as High Priest. Unfortunately, Menelaus , bought the position from Antiochus and the Aaronic line ended.
A civil war erupted between the orthodox Jews and the Hellenistic Jews in Palestine; take note, the book of the Maccabees, chronicles this war. One of the victors, Jonathan Maccabeus, assumed the leadership of Israel as High Priest. By the war's end a new kingdom rose in Judea called the Hasmonean dynasty.
Rule by the Hasmoneans, which included the office of High Priest, continued for almost 100 years until Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, two brothers competing for the throne, invited arbitration by the Romans of the city of Pompey in Syria. The Romans agreed to settle the dispute, named Hyrcanus the new king, and made a binding alliance contract with no end. Unfortunately this agreement made Israel essentially a vassal state under Roman protection. Within a few short decades Emperor Augustus confirmed Herod the Great as king of northern Palestine and the Hasmonean dynasty ended.
By the time of Yeshua, the office of the High Priest contained no members Aaron's blood line. Without a member of Aaron's blood line officiating, the office of the High Priest lay empty. Israel suffered the inability to perform the ritual of the fast, called Yom Kippur. Some would also point out that most likely the Ark of the Covenant stood no longer in the temple by this time period also preventing the proper execution of the ritual.
Even without the necessary pieces, without the necessary men, and without the necessary agreement with YHWH, temple services continued in Jerusalem. Yeshua, as the living Torah, knew the requirements of the high priests office and warned them of the coming destruction pointing out, “because thou knewest not the time of thy visitation.”
episkope g1984 , definitation 1.a. reads, “that act by which God looks into and searches out the ways, deeds character, of men, in order to adjudge them their lot accordingly, whether joyous or sad.”
Moldern Jews consider Yom Kippur thus:
"In Days of Awe, I mentioned the "books" in which G-d inscribes all of our names. On Yom Kippur, the judgment entered in these books is sealed. This day is, essentially, your last appeal, your last chance to change the judgment, to demonstrate your repentance and make amends." (http://www.jewfaq.org/holiday4.htm)
The Torah states:
Leviticus 16:21 And Aaron shall lay both his hands upon the head of the live goat, and confess over him all the iniquities of the children of Israel, and all their transgressions in all their sins, putting them upon the head of the goat, and shall send him away by the hand of a fit man into the wilderness: 22 And the goat shall bear upon him all their iniquities unto a land not inhabited: and he shall let go the goat in the wilderness.
Without a proper High Priest, no one can fulfill the duty of cleansing the nation of Israel of iniquity. The judgment day of Israel passed every year with no intercessor.
Yeshua knew eventually all those curses listed in Leviticus 26:14-39 would come upon Israel again. He wept detailing how the armies Rome, as Babylonians before them, would encamp about the city and bring the sword and the beasts of the earth to discipline and scatter Israel again.